Cameroonian Profile
Cameroonian Profile

Location and area

Cameroon is located on the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection between Western and Central Africa. With a land mass of 475.000 square kilometers, Cameroon stretches from 2° to 13° latitude north and from 9° to 16° east of Greenwich (at its widest point of 800 km). Cameroon is bordered by Nigeria in the west, Chad in the north, Central African Republic in the east, Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea in the south, and in the south-west by a 400 km stretch of the Atlantic Ocean.

Capital

Yaoundé is the capital city and the headquarters of the country’s political institutions. It is situated about 250 km from the ocean. Douala is Cameroon’s economic capital and business center. Major cities include Garoua, Bamenda, Buea, Maroua, Ebolowa, Bertoua, Edea and Limbe.  

National Day

May 20

Climate

  • A sub-tropical climate exists on the western and southern plateaus, with rains of up to 2000 mm per year. The forest region enjoys an average temperature of 22 and has four seasons:
  • A major dry season from November to March, followed by a minor rainy season from March to June, a minor dry season from June to August, and a major rainy season from August to November.
  • A Cameroonian climate exists in the west and the Adamaoua regions. In these mountainous regions, there are two alternative seasons. A short dry season from November to the end of February and an eight-month rainy season. Temperature in this region is practically constant.
  • A tropical climate exists in the northern part of the country, with a dry season from October to May and a rainy season from June to September. Garoua, in the center of the region, enjoys an average temperature of 12 in December and 44 in April.

Population:

25,640,965 (July 2018 estimates), with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Regarding structure, women account for

 51% and men 49% of the population. Youth forms the vast majority of population.

Languages

French and English (official)

Currency

CFA franc

Administrative divisions

Cameroon is divided into ten regions, 58 divisions, 339 sub-divisions and 25 districts. Each region is headed by a Governor who coordinates the work of the Divisional Offices who serve as the divisions’ heads. The Divisional Offices coordinate the work of the Sub-divisional officers who are the heads of the sub-divisions. Districts come under the authority of sub-divisions and have their own heads.

Political system

The political institutions of the country are governed by the Constitution of January 18, 1996 which provides for a presidential democratic regime. The President of the Republic is the Head of State and is elected by a public referendum for a seven-year term. President Paul Biya is the current President of the country. The President is eligible for re-election. He appoints the Prime Minister who is the Head of Government. The legislative Power is exerted by the Parliament which is formed of two houses: the National Assembly and the Senate. The Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, first and second instance courts and a High Justice Court. An Economic and Social Council advises the President on all economic and social matters submitted to it.

Natural resources:

  • Petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber and hydropower.

Economy:

  • Agriculture products: Coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, cassava (manioc, tapioca); livestock and timber.
  • Industries: Petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber and ship repair.
  • Main exports: Crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee and cotton.
  • Main imports: Machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel and food.