Egyptian-Sudanese Relations
Tuesday, January 1, 2019
Egyptian-Sudanese Relations

Relations between Egypt and Sudan are historical and deeply-rooted thanks to the River Nile and deep people- to-people relationships. Historically speaking, Egypt and Sudan were one nation since the armies of Muhammad Ali Pasha had entered Sudan in 1820. After the July revolution in 1952, and the adoption of a policy that promotes liberation and self-determination right for all peoples, Sudan attained its right to independence in 1956. Since then, the political relations between the two countries have always been stable. Egypt has always been keen on preserving the stability and security of Sudan being directly linked to Egypt’s own national security.

Political Relations

Egyptian-Sudanese relations are historically characterized by strong and deep bonds far beyond politics. Egypt is keen to establish relations that promote cooperation in all fields having common goals and sharing the same destiny.

 Economic Relations

The Egyptian-Sudanese trade relations have witnessed remarkable growth recently, especially in light of the membership of the two countries in the Greater Arab Free Trade Area and the COMESA.

  • On 24/10/2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi visited Sudan and met Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir within the framework of the Joint Higher Egyptian Sudanese committee. The summit between the two leaders addressed means of boosting bilateral relations and expanding cooperation in all domains. The summit further tackled a number of Arab, regional and international issues of common interest. President Sisi and his Sudanese counterpart Bashir commended cooperation throughout this year, which led to the signing of 12 cooperation agreements in various fields. They include memorandums of understanding (MoUs) on cooperation between the diplomatic centers affiliated to the foreign ministries of both countries. Another MoU was also signed between the Egyptian Ministry of Investment and International Cooperation and the Sudanese Foreign Ministry on exchange of expertise.
  • On 24/9/2018, Mona Mehrez, Deputy Minister of Agriculture for Livestock, Fisheries and Poultry, visited Sudan to participate in the first Regional Forum on Smart Agriculture, organized by the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development in cooperation with the Arab Organization for Information Technology and Communication and the Sudanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
  • On 8/2/2018, Minister of Transport Hisham Arafat and his Sudanese counterpart Makkawi Mohamed Awad attended the closing session of the Board of Directors of the Nile Valley Authority for River Navigation meeting.
  • On 5/12/2017, Minister of Communications and Information Technology Yasser El Kadi met his Sudanese counterpart Tahani Abdallah Attia. They signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to strengthen bilateral cooperation and exchange scientific and technical skills in communication and information technology.

Trade Balance

The trade balance is in the range of half a billion dollars.  Egyptian exports to Sudan include furniture, food commodities, plastics, petroleum products, medicines and copper products. Egyptian imports from Sudan include raw cotton, sesame and oilseeds.

On 5/10/2016, the two presidents signed a comprehensive strategic partnership document between Egypt and Sudan. Subsequently, the two presidents witnessed the signing of a number of joint cooperation agreements between Egypt and Sudan to enhance bilateral cooperation in many fields:

  • The signing of the minutes of the political and security affairs meetings of the Egyptian-Sudanese High Joint Committee, which was signed by Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The Signing of a cooperation agreement in the field of higher education and Scientific Research, signed by the Egyptian Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research Dr. Ashraf Al-Shehhi, and the Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The Signing of a memorandum of understanding in the field of agriculture and the minutes of meetings of the agriculture, water resources and irrigation sector. This was signed by Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Issam Fayed, and Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, Ibrahim Adam from the Sudanese side. The signing of the executive program for cooperation in the field of health for the years 2017 to 2019 and the meetings ‘minutes of the service sector. This was signed by Minister of Health and Population Dr. Ahmed Imad El - Din and Sudanese Minister of Communications and Information Technology Tahani Attieh.
  • The Signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of sport and youth for the years 2017 to 2019.It was signed by the Minister of Youth and Sports Khaled Abdul Aziz and the Sudanese foreign minister, Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The Signing of an executive program for cultural cooperation for the years 2017 to 2019 signed by the Egyptian Minister of Culture Dr. Hilmi Al - Namnam and Sudanese  Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The Signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of tourism for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Minister of Tourism Yahya Rashid, and the Sudanese Minister of Communications and Information Technology Tahani Attieh.
  • The signing of the Executive program for cooperation in the field of education for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Dr. Minister of Education and Technical Education, and Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The signing of the executive program and memorandum of understanding in the field of trade and endorsing the minutes of meetings of the economic and financial sector between the two countries, signed by the Minister of Commerce and Industry, Tareq Qabeel and the Sudanese side by Ambassador Salah Said.
  • The signing of the minutes of the meetings of the transport sector between the two countries, signed by Minister of Transport Dr. Jalal al-Said and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The signing of the minutes of the political and security affairs meetings of the Egyptian-Sudanese High Joint Committee, which was signed by Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The Signing of a cooperation agreement in the field of higher education and the minutes of meetings of the Higher Education and Scientific Research Sector, signed by Dr. Ashraf Al-Shehhi, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, from the Egyptian side and Ibrahim Ghandour from the Sudanese side.
  • The Signing of a memorandum of understanding in the field of agriculture and the minutes of the meetings of the agriculture, water resources and irrigation sector signed by Issam Fayed, Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, and the Sudanese side Dr. Ibrahim Adam Minister of Agriculture and Forestry.
  • The signing of the executive program for cooperation in the field of health for the years 2017 to 2019 and the minutes of meetings of the service sector, signed by Dr. Ahmed Imad El-Din, Minister of Health and Population, and Dr. Tahani Attieh, Minister of Communications and Information Technology from the Sudanese side.
  • The signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of sport and another program for cooperation in the field of youth for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by the Minister of Youth and Sports Khaled Abdul Aziz and Ibrahim Grandour from the Sudanese side.
  • The signing of an executive program for cultural cooperation for the years 2017 to 2019 signed by the Egyptian side Dr. Hilmi Al-Noman, Minister of Culture and Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The Signing of an executive program for cooperation in the field of tourism for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Yahya Rashid, Minister of Tourism, and Dr. Tahani Attieh, Minister of Communications and Information Technology from the Sudanese side.
  • The signing of the Executive program for cooperation in the field of education for the years 2017 to 2019, signed by Minister of Education and Technical Education Dr. al Hilaly Al Sherbeeny, and Sudanese Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim Ghandour.
  • The signing of the Executive program and memorandum of understanding in the field of trade and the meetings’minutes of the economic and financial sector, signed by the Minister of Trade and Industry, Tareq Qabeel and the Sudanese Ambassador Salah Sa’eed.
  • The Signing of the meetings’ minutes of the transport sector between the two countries, signed by Minister of Transport, Jalal al-Sa’eed and Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour.

Egyptian-Sudanese economic and investment relations have seen great progress over the past few years as the two countries are members in the Greater Arab Free Trade Area and the COMESA.

Most important joint projects in transport and roads

  • The coastal road between Egypt and Sudan, 280 kilometers
  • Qustul-Wadi Halfa road, 34 km inside the Egyptian border and 27 kilometers inside the border of Sudan
  • Aswan- Wadi Halfa- Dongola road
  • Developing and restructuring of the railway lines to facilitate the movement of goods and people
  • Extending the electrical grid to the north of Sudan
  • Developing the irrigation and drainage network in Sudan

Most important trade agreements

  • COMESA Agreement
  • Agreement to facilitate and develop the trade exchange and its executive program for the establishment of the Greater Arab free trade zone
  • Protocol for trade exchange between the two countries (March 1993)
  • In November 2003, the two countries signed an agreement under which the Egyptian side imports frozen Sudanese meat

Mutual Visits

  • On November 29, 2018, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry traveled to Sudan to attend the twelfth ministerial meeting of the Libya Neighbors Mechanism.
  • On November 6, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received his Sudanese counterpart, Omar al-Bashir, who was visiting Egypt to participate in the closing session of the World Youth Forum in Sharm el-Sheikh.
  • On October 24, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi traveled to Sudan to meet his Sudanese counterpart, Omar al-Bashir, during the 2nd session of the Egyptian-Sudanese presidential high committee. The talks between the two leaders focused on ways to promote bilateral relations in all areas.
  • On July 19, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi made a quick visit to Sudan, where he was received by Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir. The two leaders discussed ways to promote political, economic and cultural relations between Egypt and Sudan, as well as a number of issues of common interest, including: the fight against terrorism, the Nile water issue, the situation in Libya, Yemen, Syria and Iraq and the evolution of the peace process in the Middle East.
  • On June 3, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received Sudanese Intelligence Chief Salah Qosh.
  • On May 29, 2018, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry received his Sudanese counterpart, El-Dardiri Mohamed Ahmed. Both parties discussed a number of issues of common interest.
  • On May 24, 2018, Sudanese Minister of Health, Bahr Idris Abu Garda, paid a visit to Egypt, where he was received by his Egyptian counterpart, Dr. Hala Zayed. Both sides discussed ways to promote health cooperation between Egypt and Sudan.
  • On April 6, 2018, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry traveled to Sudan to attend the expanded meeting between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia on the Renaissance Dam. The meeting addressed all the outstanding issues and the implementation of the resolutions issued by the leaders of the three countries.
  • On March 18, 2018, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received his Sudanese counterpart from Sudan, Omar al-Bashir. Both sides discussed ways to promote relations between Egypt and Sudan.
  • On February 8, 2018, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry, his Sudanese counterpart Ibrahim Ghandour and intelligence chiefs from the two countries discussed the promotion of bilateral relations and regional issues of common interest.
  • On February 8, 2018, Minister of Transport Hisham Arafat traveled to Khartoum to attend the Board of Directors of the Nile Valley Authority for River Navigation meeting. Both sides discussed ways to promote cooperation between the two countries.
  • On December 5, 2017, Minister of Communications and Information Technology Yasser El Kadi met his Sudanese counterpart Tahani Abdallah Attia. The two sides discussed ways to strengthen bilateral cooperation and exchange scientific and technical skills in communication and information technology.
  • On August 21, 2017, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi welcomed the Sudanese Minister of Defense Awad Mohamed Ben Aouf. The talks between the two sides focused on the means needed to promote military and security coordination between Egypt and Sudan.
  • On August 2, 2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry visited Khartoum for a two-day visit. The two Egyptian and Sudanese ministers, Sameh Shoukry and Ibrahim Ghandour chaired the work of the political consultation committee between the two countries.
  • The committee meetings focused on promoting bilateral cooperation in all areas.
  • On June 3, 2017, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi received the Sudanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ibrahim Al Ghandour. Both sides discussed ways to promote relations between Egypt and Sudan.
  • On April 20, 2017, Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry made a visit to Khartoum to chair the Egyptian delegation to the meetings of the Political Consultations Commission between Egypt and Sudan. During his visit, Shoukry sent a message to Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir from his Egyptian counterpart, Abdel Fattah El Sisi, regarding enhancing the bilateral relations.
  • On March 23, 2017, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi welcomed the Director of the Office of the Sudanese President Taha Osman El-Hussein. El Hussein handed President Sisi a message from his Sudanese counterpart, Omar al-Bashir, on enhancing bilateral relations between Egypt and Sudan.
  • On October 30, 2016, the Great Imam, Sheikh Ahmed Al Tayyeb, received the Under Secretary of the National Council of Human Rights in Sudan, Afaf Taour.
  • On October 10, 2016, President Abdel Fatah El Sisi visits Sudan to attend closing Session of Sudanese National Dialogue Conference. During his visit, President Sisi holds talks with his Sudanese, Mauritanian, Chadian and Ugandan Counterparts.
  • On October 5, 2016, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi awarded the star of honor to his Sudanese counterpart, Omar al-Bashir, as a sign of appreciation for his participation in Sudanese military units during the attrition war and the October 1973 war. This decoration was presented to President al-Bashir while he was attending President Sisi's military parade at the headquarters of the Second Field Army at Tal Al-Kabir in Ismailia, on the occasion of the festivities commemorating the victory of October.
  • On March 20, 2016, Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry made a visit to Sudan. During his visit, Shoukry delivered a message from President Abdel Fatah El Sisi to his Sudanese counterpart, Omar al-Bashir, on enhancing bilateral relations between Egypt and Sudan.
  • On February 21, 2016, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir made a visit to Egypt to attend the COMESA Summit in Sharm El Sheikh. During his visit, al-Bashir met with his Egyptian counterpart, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi. They discussed the necessary means to promote bilateral cooperation between Egypt and Sudan in both economic and commercial areas.
  • On January 9, 2016, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi met with Sudanese Foreign Minister Ibrahim Al Ghandour, discussing a number of issues of common interest.

Contractual framework

  • Reciprocal exemption agreement with respect to taxes imposed on aviation facilities, July 26, 1961
  • Air transport agreement March, 25, 1962
  • Trade agreement, January 20, 1965
  • Trade agreement, customs and transportation, January 30, 1965
  • Agreement establishing regular shipping line between the High Dam and Halfa Valley, January 30, 1965
  • Media agreement, November 19, 1967
  • Agreement on the settlement of compensation owed to the nationals, June 1, 1966
  • Protocol on the implementation of construction projects, August 31, 1969
  • Agreement to achieve economic integration, August 31, 1969
  • Protocol amending the Agreement of Trade and Payment, August 31, 1969
  • Technical cooperation agreement, August 31, 1969
  • Protocol to an agreement to integrate economic and technical cooperation, August 31, 1969
  • Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of livestock, October 6, 1969
  • A cultural cooperation agreement, November 15, 1969
  • Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of agriculture, January 7, 1970
  • Protocol on the implementation of construction projects, August 31, 1969
  • Protocol amending the Agreement of Trade and Payment, August 31, 1969
  • Technical cooperation agreement, August 31, 1969
  • Protocol to an agreement to integrate economic and technical cooperation, August 31, 1969
  • Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of livestock, October 6, 1969
  • A cultural cooperation agreement, November 15, 1969
  • Protocol on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of agriculture, January 7, 1970
  • Agreement to strengthen cooperation in the Film industry, January 29, 1970
  • Protocol amending trade agreement, February 17, 1972
  • Tourist agreement, June 16, 1975
  • Protocol for establishing the Egyptian-Sudanese company for irrigation projects and construction, July 15, 1975
  • Convention on the establishment of an Egyptian-Sudanese joint navigation river (the Nile Valley), July 15, 1975
  • Agreement for Social Security, September 21, 1975
  • Protocol on Cooperation of Science, November 18, 1975
  • Joint defense agreement, July 15, 1976
  • Agreement Establishing the Sudanese-Egyptian Partnership for Mining, November 22, 1976
  • Protocol to amend the trade agreement and payment in 1/30/1965, January 12, 1977
  • Agreement establishing the Common Fund to finance the studies of technical and economic feasibility of industrial integration projects, May 28, 1977
  • Agreement on navigation, May 28, 1977
  • Agreement on the health and medical cooperation, May 28, 1977
  • Agreement on allowing dual nationality, May 28, 1977
  • Agreement Establishing the Sudanese-Egyptian Company for Investment, May 28, 1977
  • Agreement on the Settlement of compensation due from the Egyptian interests, which were nationalized in the Republic of Sudan, November 13, 1977
  • Protocol to amend certain provisions of the cooperation agreement, June 29, 1978
  • Charter of the integration between Egypt and Sudan, October 12, 1982
  • Agreement amending some provisions of the Convention on Social Security, October 25, 1984
  • Trade protocol for 1991, January 14, 1991
  • Cooperation Protocol healthy, June 15, 1998
  • Protocol on cooperation in the field of transport, July 16, 1998
  • Memorandum of Understanding on Industrial Cooperation, September 2, 2000
  • Agreement on cooperation in the field of youth and sports, September 2, 2000
  • Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the field of livestock September 2, 2000
  • Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the field of Agriculture September 2, 2000
  • Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the cultural field, September 2, 2000
  • An executive program for cooperation in tourism 2002 - 2003 September 2, 2000
  • Agreement to encourage and protect mutual investment, July 8 20 001
  • Technical cooperation agreement in the field of oil, July 8, 2001
  • Agreement establishing the joint supreme committee, July 8, 2001
  • Executive program in the field of agricultural research, livestock, July 8, 2001
  • Cooperation Protocol between the Ministries of Economy of the two countries, July 8, 2001
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of media cooperation, July 8, 2001
  • Cooperation agreement in the industrial field between the two countries, July 8, 2001
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of Education, July 8, 2001
  • Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in investment between the two countries, July 8, 2001
  • Agreement on mutual administrative cooperation for the prevention of waste customs, search and control, July 8, 2001
  • Quarantine agreement, July 8, 2001
  • Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of electricity, July 8, 2001
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of Higher Education and Scientific Research, July 8, 2001
  • An executive program for training in the fields of agriculture, livestock, July 8, 2001
  • Maritime transport agreement, July 29, 2002
  • Agreement in the field of land transport of passengers and goods, July 29, 2002
  • Agreement to avoid double taxation and prevent tax evasion, July 29, 2002
  • Agreement in the field of security, care and social development, July 29, 2002
  • Agreement on the exchange of labor, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of Fisheries, July 29, 2002
  • Executive program special health requirements of veterinary, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of wealth exports, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of workforce, July 29, 2002
  • Executive program in the field of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of information, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of Understanding on insurance and reinsurance, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the field of housing, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of roads, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding for joint cooperation in the field of crisis management and emergency events and disasters, July 29, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of administrative development, August 5, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of technical cooperation for the protection of the environment, October 24, 2002
  • Memorandum of understanding between the news agencies, July 20, 2003
  • Memorandum of Understanding between the training bodies of river transport, July 20, 2003
  • An executive program for cooperation in the field of railway between the Ministries of Transport of the two countries for 2004, July 20, 2003
  • Executive Program of Action between the Ministries of Health, July 20, 2003
  • Memorandum of understanding to establish a Committee on Industrial Cooperation, July 20, 2003
  • An executive program for cooperation in the field of youth and sport for two years 2002 – 2004, July 20, 2003
  • Executive program in the field of Education, July 20, 2003
  • Executive program on the return of the Egyptian educational mission for Sudan, July 20, 2003
  • Protocol of technical cooperation in the field of electricity between the Ministries of Electricity, July 20, 2003
  • Memorandum of understanding on cooperation in the areas of housing and public facilities, July 20, 2003
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of media cooperation, July 19, 2003
  • Memorandum of understanding on the veterinary health requirements for the export of meat from Sudan to Egypt, August 2, 2003
  • Agreement freedom of movement and residence, work and own property, April 4, 2004
  • Agreement on cooperation in the field of endowments, November 13, 2004
  • Cooperation agreement between the Egyptian Dar Al-Fatwa and the Ministry of Guidance and Endowment of Sudan, November 13, 2005
  • Memorandum of understanding between the Ministries of International Cooperation of the two countries, November 13, 2005
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of health insurance, November 13, 2005
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of Telecommunications, November 13, 2005
  • Memorandum of understanding in the field of customs, November 13, 2005
  • An executive program for tourism cooperation agreement for the years 2006 – 2008, November 13, 2005
  • An executive program for cooperation in the field of population for the years 2006 – 2008, November 13, 2005
  • An executive program for cooperation in the field of youth and sport for the years 2006 – 2007, November 13, 2005
  • An executive program for cooperation in the field of higher education and scientific research for the years 2006 – 2007, November 13, 2005
  • Extension of the Executive Program for Technical Cooperation between the Ministries of Manpower, November 13, 2005
  • An executive program for cooperation in the field of body protection for the years 2007 – 2009, April 19, 2007
  • An executive program for cooperation in the field of training between the secretariats of the Council of Ministers of the two countries, April 19, 2007
  • Memorandum of Understanding on Technical Cooperation between the General Authority for Mineral Resources in Egypt and the General Authority for Geological Research in the Sudan, April 19, 2007
  • An executive program for scientific and technological cooperation, April 19, 2007
  • Executive Program in the field of education, April 19, 2007
  • Executive program of the Convention on Cooperation in the field of Welfare and Social Development for the years 2006 – 2007, April 19, 2007
  • Executive program for cooperation in the field of administrative development for the years 2007 – 2008, April 19, 2007
  • Memorandum of understanding for cooperation in the field of harbors, April 19, 2007
  • Executive work program between the Ministries of Health of the two countries, April 19, 2007
  • An executive program for cultural cooperation for the years 2007 – 2009, April 19, 2007

Cultural Cooperation

The cultural relations between the two countries have been influenced greatly through   universities that helped in deepening these relations, via the exchange of visits between Egyptian and Sudanese university professors targeting the exchange of experiences and research between universities in both countries.

Military Cooperation

On January 17, 2018, Minister of the Interior Magdy Abdel Ghaffar agreed to send police unit to Darfur. The head of the Central Security Forces met members of the unit.

On February 5, 2014, Sudanese Defence Minister Abdel Rahim Mohamed Hussein paid a visit to Egypt during which he met with the then Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Minister of Defence and Military Production Abdel Fattah El Sisi. The two ministers agreed to establish a joint force to secure the border between the two countries and to hold joint training courses, beside cooperating in the fields of armament, exchange of military expertise and supporting security cooperation.

On August 24, 2013, Defence Minister General Sedqi Sobhi headed a delegation to visit Sudan where he met with a number of Sudanese military officials. The two sides discussed means of boosting cooperation between the two countries, benefiting from Egyptian expertise in the fields of training and arming and discussed cooperation in the preservation of common borders.

Source

Egypt State Information Service