Misra
Lahadi, Janairu 06, 2019
Misra

Suna:

Misra, ko kuma “Arab Republic of Egypt” a Hukumance kuma a Turance..

Kasa ce ta Larabawa da take a bangaren arewa maso gabas a yankin Afrika, amma sashen makamancin tsibirin Saina’a ciko ne na yankin Asiya, da haka kasar ta hade tsakanin yankuna biyu kenan.

Yawan mutane:

Ana kiyasta yawan mutanen cikinta da mutum miliyan 104, wanda hakan ya sanya ta zamo kasa ta 13 wajen yawan mutane a duniya, ita ce kuma ta farko a cikin kasashen Larabawa, a yankin Afrika kuma ita ce kusan kasa ta uku bayan Najeriya da Ethopia.

Iyaka:                                   

Kasar Misra tana da iyaka mai tsawo a tekun Bahrul Abyal da Bahrul Ahmar, tana da iyaka da kasashe bakwai da wasu yankuna, ta sashen arewa maso gabas ta yi iyaka da yankin Falasdin (Isra’ila da zirin Gazza) da tsawon kilimita murabba’i 265, ta yamma kuma ta yi iyaka da kasar Libya da tsawon kilimita 1115, ta yi iyaka da Sudan da mafi tsawon kan iyaka da ya kai kilomita 1280. Bugu da kari tana da iyaka ta kogi da kasar Saudiyya ta gabas, da arewa kuma tana da iyaka ta kogi da kasashen Girka da Cyprus.

Fadin kasa:

Fadin kasar Misra ya kai kilomita murabba’i 1,002,000. Mutane suna zaune a fadin kilomita 78990, wato kasha 7.8 na fadin da kasar take da shi..

Tsarin shugabanci:

Jamhuriyyar Misra ta Larabawa kasa ce guda daya, kuma al’umma daya, mai cin gashin kanta, tana bin tsarin “jamhuriyya Dimokradiyya”, wanda ya ginu akan mutunta dan kasa, da kuma girmama doka da oda.. al’ummar Misra sashe ne daga cikin Larabawa da yake aiki domin cike saura, da kuma samar da hadin kai. Misra wani yanki ne daga cikin kasashen Musulmai, tana kuma cikin rukunnin yankin Afrika, kaman yanda take alfahari da shigan wani yanki nata cikin yankin Asiya, take kuma bayar da gudummuwa wajen cigaban dan Adam.. Iko yana hannun ‘yan kasa ne, su ne suke zartar da shi, da kuma ba shi kariya, su ne asalin duk wani jagoranci, su ne kuma suke kiyaye hadin kan kasa, wanda ya ginu akan daidaito da adalci da kuma rashin fifita wani dan kasa akan wani..

An gina tsarin siyasa a Misra karkashin tsarin shugabancin jamhuriyya, shugaban kasa shi ne shugaba na hakika, kuma shi ne shugaban hukumar zartarwa, yana kuma shugabancinsa ne daidai da hukunce – hukuncen kundin tsarin mulki da dokoki, a gefe daya kuma ga hukumomin sanya dokoki “Majalisar Wakilai” da na “Shari’a”.

Tsarin siyasar ya ginu akan ginshikan dimokradiyya, da daidaito tsakanin ‘yan kasa a wajen hakkoki da wajibai, da kafa jam’iyyun siyasa mabambanta, da kuma mika mulki cikin ruwan- sanyi, da rarrabe tsakanin iko, da samar da daidaito a tsakaninsu, da kuma daura alhaki gwargwadon iko, da kiyaye hakkokin dan Adam da ‘yancinsa, da kuma mutunta doka da oda..

Akwai jahohi 27 masu gudanar da jagoranci, akwai kuma kananan hukumomi, da cibiyoyi a karkashinsu.

 

Mazaunin mutanen Misra:

Mafi yawan mutanen Misra suna zaune ne a gefen kogin Nilu, da kuma wasu birane, fadin gefen kogin Nilu da yankin Delta kasa yake da kashi 4% na fadin kasar gaba daya, wato kimanin kilomita murabba’i (33000), inda yafi daukan yawan mutane shi ne birnin Alkahira “Cairo” da yake dauke da kusan kashi daya cikin hudu (1/4) na mutanen kasar, daga nan kuma sai Askandariyya “Alexandria”, sauran mafi yawan mutanen kasar kuma suna zaune ne a yankin Delta, da kuma gabar Bahrul Mutawassid da Bahrul Abyal da garuruwan mashigar Suwais, suna zaune a fadin kilomita murabba’i (40,000). Hamada ko sahara da babu mutane ce ta mamaye mafi yawan fadin kasar.

Tarihi:

Akwai mafi dadewar cigaba a kasar Misra, inda dan Adam ya fara karkata zuwa ga gefen kogin Nilu domin zama a wurin cikin tsari, ya kuma fara noma da kiwo tun sama da shekaru (10,000) da shude, mutanen cikinsu sun sami cigaba cikin gaggawa, inda aka fara kananan sana’o’i, rayuwar mutanen cikinta ta zamantakewa ta cigaba, abin da ya sanya su samar da masarautu a gabar kogin Nilu masu makwaftaka da juna, da suke zaman lafiya a tsakaninsu, inda suke musanyar kasuwanci a tsakaninsu, inda suka yi wa daukacin kasashen duniya zarra a wannan fage, alal misalai akwai: Daular Badari (shekaru 7000), da Daular Naqada (Shekaru “4,400” kafin haihuwar Annabi AS zuwa “3,000” kafin haihuwar Annabi AS). Wannan cigaban dangantaka tsakanin masarautu ya yi sanadiyyar gaggauta dunkulewar kasar a matsayin abu daya, tun daga arewa har kudu, inda dangogin sarakuna suka fara mulkar kasar tun shekaru kusan (3,000) kafin haihuwar Annabi AS. Misra ta yi musanyar kasuwanci da makwabtanta, wanda hakan shi ne farkon dangantakar kasuwanci na kasa da kasa. Misra tun tale-tale ta shahara da rubutu, wannan hakan ya ba ta damar ciran tuta a fagen ilmomin likitanci da gine-gine da kuma ilimin lissafi.

Misra ta fuskanci jerin ‘yan mulkin mallaka a tsawon tarihinta, fara tun daga shigowar Farisawa, da shigowar “Askandar al-Akbar”, wanda a bayansa kuma Daular Badalima ta kafu, da nan kuma Romawa suka ci ta da yaki, suka mulke ta har na tsawon shekaru 600, a wannan lokacin ne addinin Kiristanci ya bayyana a kasar, daga baya kuma sai addini Musulunci ya shigo kasar, ya mayar da ita kasar Musulunci, a karkashin haka aka sami daulolin : Al-Dauloniyya, sannan al-Ikhshidiyya, sannan al-Fadimiyya, sannan al-Ayyubiyya, sannan al-Mamalik, bayansu kuma sai Daular Usmaniyya, a shekara 1914 kuma ta koma masarauta, sannan a karshe ta zamo Jamhuriyya.

Misra ta shahara da wuraren tarihi, kusan kashi daya cikin uku na kayan tarihin duniya suna Misra, irinsu: Ahramat dake Jiza, Abul- Howl, wurin bauta na Karnak, Dairul Bahriy, da Wadil Muluk da sauransu, akwai kayayyakin tarihin Misra a mafi yawan gidajen adana kayan tarihi na duniya, akwai ilimi na musamman da aka kebe domin nazari akan kayayyakin tarihin kasar Misra.

Harshe da addinin kasa:

Harshen Larabci shi ne harshen da gwamnati take amfani da shi, kundin tsarin mulkin kasar ya ayyana addinin Musulunci a matsayin shi ne addinin kasar, tsarin shugabanci na jamhuriyya dimokradiyya take bi..

Shiga cikin Kungiyoyin kasa da kasa:

Da kasar Misra aka fara taron kafa kungiyar kasashen Larabawa, cibiyar wannan kungiya ma tana Misra, haka ma mamba ce a cikin kasashen da suke kafa Majalisar dinkin dunaya, domin ta zamo mamba ne tun a shekara 1945, kuma mamba ce a kungiyar Tarayyar Afrika, kaman yanda take mamba a kungiyoyin kasa da kasa mabambanta.. Tana kuma da dangantaka ta diflomasiyya mai kyau da mafi yawan kasashen duniya.

Tattalin arziki:

Kasar Misra ce kasa ta biyu a karfin tattalin arziki a yankin Afrika bayan Najeriya.

Wurin samun kudin shiga a Misra suna da yawa, baya ga noma da sana’a, akwai yawon bude ido da ayyuka, kuma duka wadannan kafafe suna karfafar tattalin arziki da alkaluman da suke kusa da juna, tattalin arzikin kasar ya fi dogaro akan noma da kuma kudin fito da ake samu daga mafitar Suwais, da kuma harkar yawon shakatawa, da kuma haraji, da ribar habaka al’adu da labarai, da kuma man fetur.

 

Kudin kasa:

Jinan Misra “Egyptian pound” tun daga 1836 (wato kimani shekaru 182 da suka shude), babban bankin kasar ne yake bugawa.

Tutar kasa:

Yana dauke da launi uku masu daidaito da juna dukansu a kwance, launin ja a sama, wanda alama ne na cigaba gami da karfi da kuma fata na gari, sannan launin fari yana biye masa, shi kuma alama ne na tsarki da kuma zaman lafiya, bayansa kuma launin baki, wanda alama ne da yake nuna cewa Misra ta yi wa mulkin mallaka adabo.. a tsakiya kuma akwai “shahon Salahuddin” da aka zana shi da launin zinare, a kasan shahon an rubuta “جمهورية مصر العربية”..