Bambanci Tsakanin Wasannin Kwaikwayon Yusuf Ladan da Tawfik Al Hakim
Litinin, Maris 04, 2019
 Bambanci Tsakanin Wasannin Kwaikwayon  Yusuf Ladan da Tawfik Al Hakim

 

المسرح المصري والهوساوي

دراسة مقارنة بين يوسف لَادَنْ وتوفيق الحكيم 

Hausa and Egyptian Plays "Comparative Study"

The Case of Works of Yusufu Ladan and Tawfiq Al- Hakim

 

IBRAHIM SHEHU

A Dissertation Submitted In Partial Fulfilment for the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) of Hausa Literature (Dramatic Literature) 

 In African Studies, Cairo University

 

Under the Supervision of:

Prof. (Dr.) Ashraf M. El- Hadi El- Azzazi                            Prof. (Dr.) Muhammad Ali Nofal     

  Department of African Languages,                                               Department of African Languages,                    Institute of African Research and Studies,                  Institute of African Research and Studies, Cairo University, Egypt.                                      Cairo University, Egypt.

            Prof. (Dr.) Ayman Ibrahim Al A'sar,       

         Department of African Languages,   

          Faculty of Languages and Translation, 

   Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

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  1. Manufar Bincike

Manufar kowane mai nazari ita ce fahimtar }imar abubuwa da bayyana matsayinsa bisa dacewa. Kamar yadda Gusau (2011), ya yi tsinkaya shi mai nazarin adabi yakan yi amfani da wasu ma'aunai da dabaru na duba kyau da armashin abu don kaiwa ga manufarsa. Saboda haka, manufofin gudanar da wannan bincike sun ha]a da:

  1. Tattauna irin kamanceceniya da bambance-bambancen dangane da salo da yanayi da ke tsakanin wasu za~a~~un wasanni guda biyu na Yusufu Ladan da kuma guda biyu na Tawfi} Al- Hakim ta hanyar yin kwatance. Wasannin sune Kamar da Gaske da Hassada Ga Mai Rabo Taki na Yusufu da kuma Himar al- Hakim (Jaki Mai Hikima) da Masir Sarsar ({arshen Rayuwar Kyankyaso) na Tawfi}.
  2. Gano tasirin al'adu da yanayin zamantakewar al'ummar Hausawa a wasannin da aka za~a na Yusufu Ladan da kuma irn wannan tasirin al'adu da tsarin zamantakewa na Misirawa a wasannin Tawfi} Al- Hakim.
  3. Gano tasirin wasannin na su Yusufu Ladan da Tawfi} Al- Hakim kan adabi da yanayin zamantakewar al'ummominsu.
  4. Yin tsokaci kan gudunmuwar wannan bincike da ya shafi kwatanci tsakanin wasannin kwaikwayo rubutattu zai bayar ga fannin nazari da ilimi gaba-]aya.

 

  1. Dalilin Bincike
  2. a) An gudanar da wannan nazari ne bisa dalilin cikasa shara]in cikasa }a'idar samun digiri na uku (PhD) a Sashen Harsuna na Cibiyar Bincike da Nazari Kan Afirka na Jami'ar Al}ahira (Cairo University).

 

Haka kuma an yi la'akari da cewa rubuce-rubucen da aka riga aka gudanar, nusamman wa]anda aka yi bitarsu kafin fara rubuta wannan kundin nazari, akwai bambanci matu}a a tsakaninsu da wannan. Gi~in da aka samu tsakanin wannan aiki da wa]ancan da aka yi bitarsu ya yi sanadiyyar hango wasu abubuwa da suka ha]a da:

  1. Ba a samu wani nazari da aka kwatanta salon rubuta wasan kwaikwayo na wani Bahaushe da na Bamisire ba, musamman ma Yusufu Ladan da Tawfi}               Al-Hakim.
  2. Ba a samu wani aiki da aka yi kwatancin tasirin yanayin zamantakewar Hausawa da na Larabawa a cikin rubutattun wasannin kwaikwayo ba.
  3. Wani dalili kuma shi ne sha'awa ta musamman da na ke da ita kan nazarin wasan kwaikwayo rubutacce.

Abin lura dangane da wa]annan marawa wasan kwaikwayo rubutacce da aka yi nazarin ayyukansu a wannan kundi , wato Yusufu Ladan da Tawfi} Al- Hakim shi ne sun riski zamani iri ]aya. Tawfi} ya rayu ne tsakanin shekarar 1898 zuwa 1987[1], wato ya rasu ya na da shekaru 89 a duniya. Shi kuwa Yusufu Ladan an haifeshi ne a 1935 kuma har ya zuwa wannan shekara da aka gudanar da wannan nazari, 2016[2] yana nan a raye. Yanzu yana da shekaru 81 a duniya. A nan za a ga cewa sa'ilin da Tawfi} ya rasu, kenan shi Yusufu yana da shekaru 52 a duniya kenan.

Zamanin da suka yi tarayya a ciki, lokaci ne na gwagwarmayar siyasar mulki a }asashensu, wato Masar da Nijeriya inda ake fuskantar siyasar 'yan mulkin mallaka da gwagwarmayar neman 'yancin kan }asashen har zuwa kafuwar salon mulki na 'yan }asa  a duka }asashen nasu. Wannan zamani ya shafi fafutukar siyasa da na neman ilimi da da sauye-sauye a fannonin al'adu da tattalin arziki wa]anda suka yi tasiri a rubuce-rubucen wa]annan marawa biyu, musamman ma dai a wasannin kwaikwayonsu da aka za~a aka yi nazarinsu a wannan kundi.

 

  • Hasashen Bincike

 Hasashen wannan nazari shi ne yadda za a amsa wa]annan tambayoyi don cimma }udurin wannan aiki:

  1. Wane ne Yusufu Ladan a fagen rubuta wasan kwaikwayo na Hausa, kuma wane ne Tawfi} Al- Hakim a fagen rubuta wasan kwaikwayo na Larabci?
  2. Yaya yanaye-yanayen ko salailai da ma}asudan wasannin kwaikwayosu da aka za~a aka yi nazarinsu suke?
  3. Ko akwai kamanceceniya ko bamabance-bambance a tsakanin wasannin da aka za~a na wa]annan marubuta guda biyi?
  4. Ko wasannin nasu da aka yi nazari sun tasirantu da yanayin zamantakewar al'ummominsu, kuma ko sun haifar da wani tasiri ga zamantakewar al'ummomin da marubutan suka fito daga cikinsu?

 

  1. Matsalolin Bincike

Kowane aiki aka sanya a gaba ba ya rasa matsalolin da yake cin karo da su, haka abin ya ke danagane da ayyukan bincike-bincike da nazari irin na ilimi. Wannan aiki shi ma ba a bar shi a baya ba, don ya ci karo da wasu matsaloli wa]anda suka ha]a da:

  1. Wajen bitar ayyukan da suka gabata, ba a samu wasu ayyuka da aka kwatanta aikin wani Bahaushe da na Bamisire wan]anda suka yi rubutu kan wasan kwaikwayo wanda yake makamancin wannan nazari ba,  inda aka  kwatanta wasu wasannin Yusufu Ladan wanda yake Bahaushe ne daga Nijeriya da kuma Tawfi} Al-Hakim, Bamisire.
  2. An sha 'yar wahala wajen samun damar duba littattafai a ]akunan karatu na wasu Jami'o'i.
  3. An yi tafiye-tafiye masu nisa a Nijeriya da Masar don nemowa da tattara bayanai.
  4. An ci karo da matsalar jeka- ka- dawo wani lokaci ma da yin }ememe daga wasu da aka nemi bayanai daga wurinsu.

 

  1. Iyakacin Bincike

Kowane aiki na nazari ko bincike, musamman ma a fagen ilimi ya kan ke~anci wani batu ne, wannan aiki ya shafi nazari ne na yin kwatanci  kan fannin rubutaccen wasan kwaikwayo. An za}ulo wasanni biyu na Hausa ne wa]anda Yusufu Ladan ya rubuta da kuma guda biyu da Tawfi} Al-Hakim ya rubuta da Larabci don yin wannan kwatanci.

 

Wasannin da aka ]auka domin ]ora nazarin a kansu sune:  Kamar da Gaske  cikin wasan Zaman Duniya Iyawa Ne da kuma Hassada Ga Mai Rabo Taki cikin wasan Basafce duka na Yusufu Ladan. Sauran wasannin sune Himar al-Hakim da Larabci, ko The Donkey Market da Ingilishi wato Jaki Mai Hikima da kuma Masir Sarsar da Larabci, ko Fate of a Cockroach da Ingilishi wato {arshen Rayuwar Kyankyaso na Tawfi} Al-Hakim.

 

 

  1. Gudunmuwar Bincike

Wannan nazari zai bayar da gudunmuwa ta fuskoki da dama. Daga cikinsu akwai fahimtar yadda marawa wasannin da aka yi nazarin ayyukansu, wato Yusufu Ladan da Tawfi} Al- Hakim su ka yi amfani da mahangar wasan kwaikwayo wajen karewa da bun}asa harshe da al'adu da kuma bayyana  tsarin zamantakewar al'ummominsu. A wannan bincike an baje wasu za~a~~un wasannin guda bibbiyu na wa]annan marawa a matsayin zakarun gwajin dafi, sannan aka yi nazarinsu ta hanyar yin kwatance a tsakaninsu.

Wannan bincike kuma zai fa]a]a fagen ilimi da bincike wajen yin kwatanci tsakanin rubutattun wasannin kwaikwayo, inda masu nazari za su ri}a waiwayensa da ]ora hanyoyin bincikensu bisa irin ra'o'i ko tsarin tarken da aka yi amfani da su a wannan kundi.

 

[1] An haifi Tawfi} Isma'il Al- Hakim a ranar 9 ga Oktoba, 1898, ya kuma rasu a ranar 26 ga Yuli, 1987

[2] An haifi Yusufu Muhammadu Ladan a ranar 29 ga Yuli, 1935 ya na raye har zuwa lokacin gabatar da wannan nazari, Yuli, 2016.

BABI NA dAYA (SAMUWA DA BUN{ASAR WASAN KWAIKWAYO

 

  • Gabatarwa

Ma'anar wasan kwaikwayo a Hausa a fili take tun daga kalmomin da aka gina sunan na wasan kwaikwayo, wato  akwai alamun 'wasa' da kuma 'kwaikwayo'. Shi 'wasa' na nufin duk abin da ba gaske ba ne, sa'ilin da 'kwaikwayo' kuma ke nufin kwatanta wani abu a aikace yadda yake.

Ahmed (1985), ya ce wajibi ne kafin wasan kwaikwayo ya amsa sunansa, ya zama wasa ne, ko kuma abin da ba da gaske ba ne; haka nan ma}asudinsa ya zama ‘yan wasan sun sake kamannunsu ta sigar tufafinsu, ko abubuwan da suke amfani da su, ko kuma abubuwan da suke yi. A nan za a fahimci cewa zaman sake- kama wani ginshi}i a wasan kwaikwayo, ya samo asali ne daga ‘kwaikwayo’, ko ‘drama’ da harshen Ingilishi, wanda yake ruhinsa kwaikwayo ne, wato ‘mimesis’ da harshen Girka.

Shi kuwa a nasa ra’ayi, Umar (1978), ya bayyana wasan kwaikwayo na Hausa da cewa kamance ne na wa]ansu halaye ko yanayin rayuwa da ake gudanarwa a wasance. Haka nan wasan kwaikwayo kan ~ullo a kusan kowani rukuni na adabi, wato dai wasan kwaikwayo fage ne }are- gudun doki.

 

Kasancewar wasan kwaikwayo da]a]]en abu ne a tarihin rayuwar ]a'adam, kuma kamar sauran rassan adabi ya dogara ne ga yanayin zamantakewar jama'a, kowace al'umma ta na da wasan kwaikwayonta na gargajiya  da kuma na zamani saboda ya]uwa da bun}asa da yake yi. A wannan kashi an yi bayanin tarihin samuwar wasan kwaikwayo a wasu manyan al'ummomi da suka zama madogara kan sha'anin wasan. Haka kuma an waiwayi tarihin samuwar wasan da ha~akarsa a }asashen Nijeriya da Masar don ganin yadda lamarin yake, musamman ma saboda marubuta wasannin kwaikwayo guda biyu da aka yi nazarin wasu wasanninsu da aka za~a, wato Yusufu Ladan da Tawfi} Al- Hakim daga wa]annan }asashe suka fito.

Masana fannin wasan kwaikwayo kan ri}a danganta fahimtarsu na wasan kwaikwayo da yadda shahararren masanin adabi da halayyar ]an'adam Aristotle[1] wanda ya bayyana ra'insa dangane da ma'anar wasan kwaikwayon. Cikin littafinsa na The Poetics, Aristotle[2] wanda yake ala}anta wasan kwaikwayo da rubutacciyar wa}a, ya bayyana cewa marubucin wasan kwaikwayo tilas ne ya riya a cikin tunaninsa dabarar da zai iya jan hankalin wa]anda za su kalli wasan da ya tsara. A cewarsa kowane wasan kwaikwayo wajibi ne a rubuta shi, sannan a aiwatar da shi ta yadda zai }ayatar.

Aristotle ya ce kowane nagartaccen wasan kwaikwayo ya na da ginshi}ai guda shida wa]anda suka ha]a da:

  1. Zubin wasa
  2. 'Yan wasa
  3. Take
  4. Harshe
  5. Ki]a
  6. Kayan wasa

 

[1] Aristotle Nicomachus asalinsa mutumin kasar Girka ne kuma masanin ilimin falsafa. Ya rayu tsawon shekaru 63 (daga shekarar 385 zuwa 322 kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa, alaihis-salam.

[2] Bayanin na cikin littafin Aristotle's Poetics wanda Thomas Twining (2008), ya fassara.

BABI NA BIYU

YUSUFU MUHAMMADU LADAN                                                                                    

  • Gabatarwa

A wannan babi an waiwayi tarihin rayuwar Alhaji Yusufu Muhammadu Ladan ne, wanda yake ]aya ne daga cikin marawa wasannin kwaikwayo biyu da aka yin nazarin wasu wasannin da suka rubuta ta hanyar yin kwatanci a tsakaninsu. Baya ga tarihi, an kuma bi diddigin irin gwagwarmayar da ya sha musamman ta fuskar rubutawa da shirya wasan kwaikwayo da sauran nau'o'in gudunmuwa da ya bayar ga harkar wasan kwaikwayo da kuma adabi. Haka nan an yi tarken wasanninsa guda biyu da aka za~a a matsayin zakarun gwajin-dafi na irin wasannin da ya rubuta.

 

2.1 Tarihin Rayuwar Yusufu Ladan

An haifi Malam Yusufu Ladan a ranar 29 ga watan Yuli, 1935 sa'ilin da mahaifiyarsa ta tafi mahaifarta bangwani, wato garin Hun}uyi da ke yankin {aramar Hukumar Kudan a  Jihar Kaduna da ke Nijeriya. Mahaifin Yusufu Ladan shi ne Alhaji Muhammadu Ladan, wanda yake }wararren ma'aikacin rediyo ne, kuma ya ta~a ri}e mu}amin sarautar gargajiya ta [an Iyan Zazzau.

 

Yusufu ya rabauta da yin karatu na addinin Musulunci da kuma na zamani. Tun yana kusan ]an shekara shida ne ya fara yin karatun allo a wurin Malaminsa na farko, Malam Ahmadu Rufa'i a Unguwar Gangaren Tukurwa a birnin Zariya. Sannan, da ya shiga makarantar Elmantare, ya ci gaba da yin karatun addini a wajen Limamin masallacin makarantarsu, wato Liman Muhammadu, inda ya samu sauke karatun Al}ur'ani mai girma da kuma wasu littattafan Fi}ihu da suka ha]a da Ahalari, da Ishimawi da kuma Risala.

 

Malam Yusufu Ladan ya shiga makarantar boko ne tun daga matakin Elmantare tun daga shekarar 1943 a makaranatar Town School no. 1 da ke {ofar Kuyambana a garinsa na asali, wato birnin Zariya da ke Jihar Kaduna. Bayan kammala karatun Elmantaren ne sai ya shiga Makaranatar Koyar da Sana'o'i ta Kaduna Trade Centre a shekarar 1951. Daga nan kuma sai Makarantar Midil ta Zariya daga 1952 zuwa 1954. Malam Yusufu Ladan kuma ya yi karatu a Cibiyar Koyon Dabarun Aikin Mulki ta Jami'ar Ahmadu Bello da ke Kongo, Zariya inda ya koyi aikin Akawu daga 1955 zuwa 1956.

 

Bayan kammala wannan zangon karatun ne, sai Yusufu Ladan ya fara aiki a }ar}ashin Ma'aikatar Ilimi ta Jihar Arewa a Sashen Ya}i Da Jahilci da ke Zariya. An sassauya mishi wuraren da ya yi aiki a wannan matsayi, inda ya yi aiki a Kaduna da kuma Ilori duka na tsawon shekaru ]ai-]ai.

 

Bayan dawowarsa Kaduna a karo na biyu, Yusufu Ladan ya ri}a tsarawa da gabatar da shirye-shirye  domin ]alibai da malaman makaranta. Daga nan kuma sai gaba-]aya ya sauya akalar aikinsa zuwa Kamfanin Ya]a Labarai na Jihar Arewa wato BCNN, inda aka ]auke shi a matsayin Jami'i mai kula da ]akin adana fayafayan da ake ]aukar shirye-shirye na rediyo.

 

Haka nan Yusufu Ladan ya ri}e mu}amai daban-daban  a gidan rediyon na BCNN  har zuwa komawarsa sashen rediyo na Gidan Radio- Television Kaduna. Mu}aman sun ha]a da  Jami'i Mai Gabatar da Shirye-shirye, da Mai yin Shirye-shirye, da Manajan Shirye-shirye na Gidan Rediyon da kuma Daraktan Shirye-shirye.

 

Malam Yusufu ya kuma zama Janar Manajan Hukumar Kafofin Ya]a Labarai ta Jihar Kaduna (Kaduna Sate Media Corporation – KSMC) a 1988-1991. Haka kuma ya ta~a zama Wakili a Hukumar Daraktocin Gidan Rediyon Nagarta da ke Kaduna.

 

Kodayake Hausawa kan ce, 'da]ewa a bauta – 'yanci', Malam Yusufu Ladan bai yi }asa a gwiwa ba, domin ya  halarci kwasakwasai don }ara samun gogewa kan aikinsa na rediyo da kuma shiryawa da gabatar da wasannin kwaikwayo. Misali ya halarci kwas  a Cibiyar Koyar da Aikin Jarida da ke Indiya a 1970 da kuma wasu kwasakwasai  a Ingila da Makarantar Horar da Ma'aikatan Gidan Rediyon B.B.C London ta shirya a 1973 da kuma 1979.

 

Wannan gwani ya zama wakili a Hukumar Kula Da Fasaha Ta Nijeriya a shekarar 1975. Haka  kuma ya halarci wani tabban taro na duniya kan tattara tarihin Afirka wato 'Bridge History Conference' da aka gudanar a Jami'ar {asar Nijar a shekarar 1985.  Malam Yusufu ya kuma halarci babban taron }ara wa juna ilmi kan fassara wasu ke~a~~un kalmomin Hausa[1] da aka gudanar a Otal ]in Bagauda da ke Kano, Nijeriya a shekarar 1985.

 

A matsayinsa na gogaggen ma'aikacin rediyo, kuma fitacce kan wasan kwaikwayo na Hausa da sauran sassan adabi da kuma harshen Hausa, Malam Yusufu Ladan yana bayar da gudummuwa ba kawai ga Hausawa, ko 'yan Nijeriya ba. A shekarar 1986 ya kar~i ba}uncin wasu mutanen }asar Sin [2] wa]anda ma'aikata ne na Gidan Rediyon Beijin da suka zo Gidan Rediyon Tarayya na Kaduna domin kwas na sanin makamar aiki kan yadda ake tsarawa da gabatar da shirye-shirye da harshen Hausa.

 

Haka nan daga shekarar 1989 zuwa 1990 an ri}a tattaunawa da Malam Yusufu Ladan a  Muryar Hausa, Gidan Rediyon Jamus kan abubuwan da suka shafi harshe, da al'adu da kuma adabin Hausa.

 

Haka kuma gidajen rediyo daban-daban da ke Nijeriya sun ri}a gayyatar Malam Yusufu don tattaunawa da shi a fannonin aikin rediyo da wasan kwaikwayo da kuma harshen Hausa. Misali shi ne a ranar 8 ga watan Oktoba, 2015, cikin shirin 'Iyayen Al'umma' na Gidan Rediyon Jihar Kaduna, KSMC an tattauna da shi kan tarihi da gwagwarmayar da ya fuskanta a rayuwarsa da kuma harkar wasan kwaikwayo.

 

Haka nan, saboda yabawa da gudunmuwar da Alhaji Yusufu Muhammadu Ladan, musamman wajen yayatawa da bun}asawa da kuma kare al'umma, tare da harshe da adabi da kuma al'adun Hausa,  a shekarar 1990 Mai Martaba Sarkin Zazzau, Alhaji (DR) Shehu Idris, CFR, LLD  ya na]a shi sarautar da mahaifinsa ya ta~a ri}ewa, wato ta [an-Iyan Zazzau, Hakimin Kabala.

 

[1] Hausa Metalanguage da aka gudanar tare da mashahuran Malaman Hausa irin su Farfesa Ibrahim Yaro Yahaya da Farfesa Hambali Jinju.

[2] Wato 'yan }asar China.

BABI NA UKU

TAWFI{ ISMA'IL AL- HAKIM

 

 

  • Gabatarwa

Tawfi} Isma'il Al- Hakim shi ne ]aya gwanin rubuta wasannin kwaikwayon da aka yi nazarin wasanninsu tare da Yusufu Muhammadu Ladan a wannan kundi. Kamar yadda aka gani a babi na biyu da ya gabata, a wannan babi an bibiyi tarihin rayuwar Tawfi} ne tare da yin la'akari da irin gwagwarmayar da ya sha ta fuskar rubuce-rubuce kan adabi, musamman ma wasan kwaikwaikwayo inda nan ne wannan nazari ya bayar da }arfi a kai. Haka nan an yi tarken wasu wasanninsa guda biyu da aka za~a suma don yin kwatanci a tsakaninsu da wa]anda takwaransa, Yusufu Ladan ya rubuta.

 

  • Tarihin Rayuwar Tawfi} Al- Hakim

Cikakken sunan Tawfi} shi ne Tawfi} Isama'il Al- Hakim. An haifeshi ne a Unguwar Muharram Beck a birnin Iskandariya, wato Alexandria da ke }asar Masar a ranar 9 ga watan Oktoba, 1898. Cikin wata ma}alar Khatun (2013), mai taken Contributions of Tawfiq Al-Hakim in Arabic Drama: A Brief  Discussion, wato Ta}aitaccen Tsokaci Kan Gudunmuwar Tawfi} Al- Hakim Ga Wasan Kwaikwayo Na Larbci da aka wallafa a mujallar Global Research Methodology Journal, ta bayyana cewa mahaifin Tawfi}, wato Isma'il Al- Hakim Al}ali ne.

 

Tawfi} Al-Hakim ya fara makarantarsa ta Elmantare ne a garin Damanhur inda ya kammala a shekarar 1915. Bayan kammala wannan makaranta ce sai kuma ya fara karatunsa na Sakandare a Lardin Beheira kafin daga baya aka canja mishi makaranta ya koma Makarantar Sakandare ta Muhammad Ali da ke Gundumar Sayyida Zainab a birnin Al}ahira.